The goal of the mathematics curriculum at the Lower Elementary level is to introduce children to increasingly complex concepts using the Montessori materials in a sequential, concrete to abstract manner. The curriculum builds on the material based understanding of numbers and their relationships rooted in the Early Childhood curriculum while helping the children to transition into more abstract thinking. This fundamental aspect of Montessori is often simply referred to as the progression from “concrete to abstract” and it is exemplified by the Lower Elementary math curriculum. Within this construct, students learn about place value and operations with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. They develop an understanding of key geometric concepts and develop and apply knowledge of measurement and currency systems. They also develop and apply knowledge of data collection and probability. Finally, they complete word problems based on all of the above. Kingsley uses the Montessori materials to teach most concepts in mathematics while supplementing with other math materials. As with Language, teachers strive to introduce students to the big picture in the area of mathematics through the introduction of the History of Mathematics. Through this work, students explore ancient mathematicians, counting systems, and the origins of geometry. The goal is to introduce a sense of awe regarding the work that has been done to develop our current mathematical systems and to help students consider the contributions that they, too, may make.